The knee joint is a hinge joint comprised of the femur previously mentioned and the tibia below. The knee features principally in bending and extending. Nevertheless irrespective of the importance of the knee in our everyday purpose, the knee joint is drastically impacted by the perform and framework of joints over and under particularly the hip and foot. Weakness and a damage of mobility in the hip as well as flexibility and biomechanical issues of the foot can result in irregular strain handed on to the knee, triggering a wide variety of knee ailments. The knee in many ways turns into the victim secondary to its location. The type of treatment recommended for flat feet will depend on the condition’s specific cause as well as your level of discomfort. Mild cases can usually be treated effectively with physical therapy and orthotics like arch supports and special shoes. In more severe cases where the feet have become rigid, flat foot surgery may be indicated to repair the tendons. drill holes are made in the medial malleolus and the medial cuneiform thru which is passed a free tendon graft (using the EDL tendon); The Foot Posture Index (FPI) 10 is a tool that can be used to classify foot posture based on several clinical measures of the foot. Well-fitted shoes with good arch support may help prevent flat feet. Maintaining a healthy weight may also lower wear and tear on the arches. Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. The term flatfoot is not a medical term, but is often used to describe a foot with a flattened or lowered arch. The arches of normal feet can be of varying height, so it is possible to have a relatively normal foot with a low arch. A normal foot with a low arch rarely requires treatment. Pes plano valgus is the medical term that refers to an abnormal foot due to a flattened arch, a rolled-in appearance of the ankle, and a heel that appears to be rolled-out from under the ankle. Pes plano valgus feet may require treatment – more on this later. It’s important to remember that because we don’t treat, the benefits to the feet are a bonus – but one which everyone can enjoy. As with a lot of pathologies or deviations from the norm, flat feet may not begin with the feet, unless the condition is congenital. As we age there is a tendency for the feet to pronate , but most of us who have healthy arches will likely keep them, as long as we don’t abuse our feet. Firstly, ligaments connect bone to bone, and there is a lot of ligamentous attachment around the arch of the foot to keep it stable. Pes Cavus is caused by muscle imbalances in the lower leg and foot that draws the front of the foot, or sometimes draws the heel downward, making the arch higher than normal. It usually begins during childhood and may be associated with neurological conditions such as muscular dystrophy or spina bifida, but not always. In many cases the muscles of the feet become tighter or weaker for unknown reasons. As with many medical conditions, genetics play a role in who will become afflicted with high arches. These shoes offer extra support for the foot whether there are problems or not. Anyone who wants to protect their feet can use them. Flat feet (pes planus or fallen arches) is a condition in which the arch of the foot collapses, with the entire sole of the foot coming into complete or near-complete contact with the ground. The appearance of flat feet is normal and common in infants, partly due to baby fat which masks the developing arch and partly because the arch has not yet fully developed. Flat arches in children usually become proper arches while the child progresses through adolescence and into adulthood. However, in some individuals the arch never develops in one foot or both feet. If the sandal is being worn in a dressier kind of situation, leather and suede straps will do. If you intend on replacing your sneakers with sandals, you will need a cloth or synthetic strap that allows your foot room to move. The best sandals for fit have a heel cup, a cup underneath the heel that cushions the heel. This cup absorbs the extra stresses put on the heel, especially by us heavy walkers! If you are overweight you are more subject to plantar fasciitis, or pain in the heel caused by overstressed feet. This will tend to spike you in the feet first thing in the morning. Laminectomy, also referred to as a decompression, is the surgical removal of the lamina (hard covering of the spinal canal). Laminectomy is typically preformed on individuals who have been diagnosed with spinal stenosis. In some cases, a laminectomy might be performed during a repair of disk herniation. Removal of the lamina enlarges the spinal canal area, relieving pressure on nearby nerves. A six- to 12-week recovery period is typical after a laminectomy. Compartment syndrome of the lower legs, or chronic exertional compartment syndrome, is a condition that causes pain in the lower leg muscles during exercise. Several tests are used to diagnose compartment syndrome.